z . ,2
Workers of America
LABOR PRESS SYNDICATE, Milwaukee, Wis.
In the following pages, we reprint the Labor Day Mani-
festo of the Communist Party of America.
Always assailed as Utopian and visionary, in this document
the Communists reveal themselves as thoroughly realistic and
as voicing the demands of all progressive workers,'' namely, for
amalgamation of craft unions into industrial unions, for solid-
arity of the working class and for militant action in defense *
of working-class interests.
During the present labor struggles, the many accidents that
occurred were fraudulently ascribed to acts of violence on the
part of radical workers, and especially of Communists. The
capitalists and the authorities carefully concealed many glaring
facts, such as, that, as a result of the RaMroad Strike, 60% of
the locomotives, according to statistics, were out of repair. The
consequence was many serious wrecks like the one at Gary, Ind.
In 1919, during the Washington inquiry into the Steel
Strike, Judge Gary declared that he conducted his business as
HE saw fit, and employed a system of spies throughout his or-
ganizatkm as the proper method of checking up on his workers.
This, he stated, was his perfect right. Again, the Inter-Church
Inquiry into the Steel Strike and the investigation of the West
Virginia coal mining industry definitely exposed and demon-
strated what spokesmen of the working class had long asserted;
©tz., that, by means of "rats", stool-pigeons and provocateurs,
the employers commit acts of vandalism and violence on their
own property and against their own workers, laying the respon-
sibility for such acts at the door of strikers and rebellion*
workers. This they do in order to discredit the workers and
give excuse for the use of force against them.
hi the recent coal and railroad strikes, with the aid of
hirelings, the capitalists used the same violence against the
workers with the idea of disrupting their organizations.
This Labor Day Manifesto clearly reveals the part that
force plays in the struggle of the capitalists against the work-
ers — a part that daily is becoming more apparent and more
extensive, especially in America. The workers must under-
stand this, and buiM up their organisations accordingly.
LABOR PRESS SYNDICATE.
Communist Party of America
To the Workers of the United States-
rnun^ZlZZ^Z^l ^ diFeCted *°™>* Go-
to can Co m t:Lu 7n?he el^ h the A ° eP<lrtln€nt ° f J »«<*
one who is "red", ev ^oL w o s t-w'T Gener "' T
TURN TO WORKERS OF AMERICA
»entlr/^r h ^ that « * «» Depart-
alleged "secTPt » , arged With having attended an
ators!" The Gompers clique rushes to the rescue of this unholy
Trinity. And even the Socialist New York Call and the Forward
print documents and evidence to prove that the Communists are
an underground party with secret objects and mysterious meth-
WANT WORKERS TO KNOW EVERYTHING
Workers of America! We want to make it clear to you why
all the Powers that be of American capitalism have solidly lined
up against us.
They are persecuting us, not because we are a secret band
The Communist Party of America is not a secret band of
plotters. We do not desire to conceal a single one of our objects
from the great working class of America. It is an infamous
lie that we Communists organize campaigns of bomb throwing,
dynanutmg and sabotage. On the contrary, we Communists,
as all of our manifestoes, books and press show, are in principle
opposed to all such individual actions— instead of action of the
masses— not because we want to save the capitalists, but because
we know that all such terroristic acts are ineffective and would
serve to confuse the working masses and poison public opinion
against the workers' cause, and would afford the capitalist
government an excuse to proceed against the workers
We can perfectly well understand how honest, striking
workers, embittered by the brutal oppression suffered bv them
under capUahsm, resort to acts of sabotage, and we look upon
the persecute of such workers with utmost disdain. Rut we
do not look upon such methods as methods of the Revolution.
REVOLUTIONISTS NOT BOMB THROWERS
JesW tt? TT'^TJ-^ " 0t b ° mb thKwers - We ™nt to
destroy the whole building of capitalist society and not the build-
ing of some railway station.
We are after the life of the political and economic rule of
the bourgeo.sie and not after the life of this banker or that
The road to the Workers' Revolution does not lie in train
wrecks and petty dynamiting feats, but in broad, huge m...
£S tlT™ ^ ° rganiZed ™ ^»™* *< the or*
It is base and senseless slander to brand the Communists
woX * Tf " ambU8h - Face to f8ce ^th all the
Irms „or „ ° Pen ' y dedare 'hat we have neither
arms nor an armed organization. We know very well how-
ever, that capitalism cannot be abolished without the use of force.
The capitalist magnates will hand over power to the work-
Wim r gl> ' and 38 peacefu "v *s the British Crown and
1776 I/'" 8 * ° Ver t0 the A ™" bourgeoisie in
owners freed their Negro slaves in the Civil War.
ATTACK CAPITALIST HYPOCRISY
Indeed, we openly proclaim that the industrial and agricul-
tural workers, who, being the vast majority of the pop^ot
"•r?J h3Ve . a "> ht t» establish their own rule, w ™
force ,f need be, against the rule of the small group c f t™*
magnates and capitalists generally.
We are for the rule of the workers; we are for huge mass
aeons; we are for participation of tens of millions of worked
th 1S struggie. Is it not then plain and self-evident ZZ t ZZ
be ridiculous and stupid for us even to attempt to achieve all
A tT- !f t BeCTet ' C ° nCealed ma ™« without the knowlLS
and behind the backs of the millions of workers'
party?" Bnoimw i'arty of America an underground
We want to answer this quwtion also. It fa true that th«
Communist Partv of A mo w M ,-„ , e tnat the
whv , , Z America, is an underground party. Bat
Z> L P ] J bWaQ9e the ea P^l«t State Powers comnel u!
to be- an underground nm+u t„ . ™ *-«<npe! os
"antt ^-n,rj J,1 P y ' In mar »y rf °w states there are
antisyndicalist" laws, the object of which is thru «Z!
Powers, thru their own laws, make it impossible for us to exist
$ openly, and then on the other hand, these same capitalist State
Powers turn round and blame us for being underground party.
ORGANIZED AS OPEN PARTY
It is not an inherent feature of a Communist party to be
underground. In France, in Germany, in Italy, in England, in
Czecho-Slovakia, we have Communist Parties with hundreds of
thousands of workers in their ranks, whose program is the same
as ours, that is, the establishment of working class rule, the
abolition of capitalism.
And yet, these parties are not underground; on the contrary,
they are able to organize openly, to carry on the most open
Communist propaganda in their press, assembly and the legis-
It is only in the most backward countries, as in Rumania,
Jugo-Slavia. Poland, Hungary and Finland, in the countries
most apart from the center of the modern world, that the brutal-
ity of the State Powers has condemned the Communist parties
to an underground existence.
The Communist Party of America has done everything in
its power to organize as an open political party. In 1919 the
Communist Party of America was organized as an open party.
It is only the brutal persecution that has driven us underground.
And today also, we want to do everything in our power that will
enable us to participate openly in political life.
Our great aim, revolutionizing the broad masses, the devel-
opment of huge political mass actions, the enhancement of prole-
tarian class-consciousness, the raising of the working class to be
the rul.ng- class, all of these especially, we can only achieve in
the great open field. We openly declare and we can convince
every s.ncere worker that the Communist Party of America,
despite the fact that it is today an underground party, has not
carried out a s.ngle plan in secret, and is carrying on all of its
work, all of its activity in the open.
We are, then, not persecuted because we are a band of
consp.rators, and not because we are building an underground
party. This u all false The real reasons for this persecution
are positively to be found elsewhere.
WHY THIS PERSECUTION!
The real reasons are the following: As a result of the War
and the economic crisis, the class struggle of the American
workers against the capitalists is developing on an ever larger
scale and assuming an ever sharper turn, The offensive of the
capitalists seeks, with the aid of their State Powers, to destroy
the whole organized labor movement and the brutal attempts
of the Government to destroy the Coal Miners* Union thru the
Coronado decision, indicates the real plans of the capitalists.
The workers must defend themselves unless they wish to
go down to utter defeat. The big battles of this campaign of
self-defense are the miners' and the railroad workers' strikes.
Neither America nor the rest of the capitalist world has seen
such gigantic strikes, of such long duration, imbued with so
courageous a spirit, and involving such huge masses as we now
have in the miners', railroad workers' and other strikes.
The results of these strikes are already momentous. The
production of coal has been brought to a standstill. The whole
capitalist press, after treating the strike arrogantly for months,
has now for the past few weeks been lamenting the fact that
the flames of American capitalist economic life are smothered.
As a consequence of the coal strike, Ford must close his gigantic
automobile works and other capitalists must follow suit,
WORKERS DEMAND AMALGAMATION
The railway strike is. becoming more and more general.
Even the strike of the shopmen alone obstructed traffic. The
Interstate Commerce- Commission was obliged to notify the
Senate that no less than 60 per cent of the 79,000 locomotives
in. use in the United States were rendered useless for service.
The organized workers of the Big Four are out on strike
by the tens of thousands— against the will of the yellow trade
onion bureaucracy. The Steel Trust,, terrified, lest: the steel
workers be drawn into this strike movement,, was forced, "volun-
tarily" to raise the wages 20 per cent.
^ The amalgamation of the craft unions into industrial unions
« becoming an ever larger factor in the minds of the workers.
What had never manifested itself in the history of the American
labor movement has already appeared: the idea and the possi-
States C ° UCUn * 8 General Strike thruout th « entire United
Coal and railroads, fuel and traffic are in danger-the
" STSES striLT ft unions int0 industriaI unions - the «- <«
CAPITALISTS EMPLOY VIOLENCE
The capitalists of this country cannot crush the millions of
Pov'theT T mifl " ly: heMe the ^ eon,p e „ed to em
iLi G ° Vernment P ° Wer * th6y Me open, naked
The American courts have issued a whole series of miW
t^a^ainst the strikers for the protection of ^pitX
The aim of the Coronado decision is to strike to the heart
of orgamzed labor. The police dogs of the Department It JustW
Herrin is only a battle in th « ar ^|,
and the working class of America. the ca P !talist
The siege of Joliet is another battle in this hi* war a
extensive, well-planned campaign of thl / ,. g War ' An
SEE*- s -2
But the capitalist's are not satisfied with th;= wt . t
already happened in fifteen State, 7h„ f . What has
48 States of the Union K-Xh a 10 enact all,
he asks for a lalwh° h otTtt P °^
- completely to th 7t:Z
brutality: "If the strike is not ^ IttMn ^ ?* ™ *"
>- wmply raise the flag and appoint rJ ^ o wiU
charge of matters." PP General Pushing to take
The dictatorship of the American capitalists has been
changed into an open military dictatorship, owing to the in-
creasing sharpness of the class struggle.
STRUGGLE FOR POLITICAL POWER
The mighty executive of the capitalist class — the Govern-
ment — immediately grasped what the working class has not yet
grasped, namely, that every large economic struggle between
capital and labor becomes a political struggle — that is, a strag-
gle for political power.
The extensive strike movement of the workers, which up to
the present has been on the defensive, has reached the point at
which it now faces the whole capitalist State Power. It is
quite evident that Harding and his accomplices have determined
to destroy the entire strike movement and, if necessary, to
accomplish it by drowning the workers in their own blood.
Attorney General Datigherty has said quite openly that if the
workers do not surrender to the bosses, "the Government will
destroy the unions."
Workers of America! This is the heart of the problem.
You must understand that the persecutions to which the Com-
munists have been subjected are nothing but. the beginning and
part and parcel of the persecutions which the whole working
class of this country will suffer.
Yon must understand that the same courts that condemn
Communists to prison also issue injunctions against the workers.
The same courts that outlawed the Communist party also
declared the Child Labor Law unconstitutional. The same De-f
partment of Justice that carries on raids against the Comnran-
ists also sends its spies and rats into the unions, and by means
of provocateurs, carries out bomb attacks and acts of sabotage,
and then proclaims them, as acts of the working class.
THESE HAPPENINGS NOT ACCIDENTS
The same armed forces that came out of their hiding place
in Michigan and attacked the Communists also besieged Joliet
and marched oat to pot down striking workers in fifteen states.
You must understand that the attack on the Communists
at Bridgeman. Mich., and the raid on the Trade Union Educa-
in a IS V / T thing3 th8t happen on, y °™
In a while. You must understand that Patrick Hamrock who
drove Foster out of Colorado i s the same man who shot downlhe
w.ves and children of the miners at Ludlow, Colo.
It is clearly no accident that Attorney General Daugherty
one week ordered raids on the Communists, and the next week
everTTdl J™* fa ™ chin S. Mastic injunction
RaO™1 I , federal court in any lab or dispute, restated the
Railroad Employees' Department of the American Federation
ol Labor from ever "issuing any instructions, public statements
strike. The funds of the strike are thus tied up, no money can
strikers and 811 picketi - and -
The same capitalists who drove us underground are now try-
ing to drive the trade unionists underground. The same PowJL
o State that have declared us illegf, and have gotten a l
about democracy, so far as we are concerned, and have denied
us the freedom of the press, assemblage and speech, the saml
powers of state which have ruthlessly exercised a d fcUtorehto
over us for many years, these same powers are now Sit '
COMMUNISTS PART OF LABOR
This, and this only, is the meanino- nf »k. i
the mines and the railed" to m s "Z
the meaning of the raising of the ^^^^J?*' £
ways at this time; and this, and this oniv i s Z
Pershing's entry as a force into the stnke tena. ™ g ° f
The workers of America must understand that the f»* *
the workmg class and the fate of the Communist! ° f
able. This is self-evident. The Ccn^sT^ no ?
soparate and distinct from the working cYat The Co * ^
are those workers who are conscious of the feet tZT^T
struggle against the capitalist* th* 1 V that m the
class. capitalists the workers must fight as a
The Communists are among the first to recognize that the
workers cannot fight well when they are divided into nearly 160
separate and distinct unions.
The Communists are among 1 the first to protest against the
reduction of wages and the first to agitate against the pauper-
ization of the masses.
AGAINST CAPITALIST STATE POWER
The Communists are those who maintain that it is insuffi-
cient to struggle merely against the individual capitalists or
trusts, because the organ of the organized capitalists-— the Gov-
ernment—immediately rushes to the aid of the exploiters when-
ever they are attacked.
It is therefore necessary to wage a political straggle against
the whole system of capitalist state power.
The Communists are those who demand that the workers
shomld declare themselves independent of the capitalist political
parties. The workers must have their own class party repre-
senting the interests of the whole working class. The Commun-
ists are those who wish to substitute for the dictatorship of the
trusts the rule of the workers in the interests of all.
And neither does the Communist International, the great
association of all Communist parties, have any secret, mysteri-
ous, "Russian" aims.
At this moment, in the prevailing situation in America., the
Communist International (the real International and not the
sham International portrayed to you by your enemies) asks that
the railroad workers, the miners, and the seamen, of England and
France do not permit the transportation of scab coal to America.
The Communists are not a sinister, secret band of con-
spirators. Oar aim, the liberation of the workers, the abolition."
of wage slavery and winning working-class, control of industry
and State Power, can only be achieved if the great masses of the
workers stand with as.
SPREAD' TRUTHS. OF' COMMUNISM
Workers' rule is only possible when, the millions of workers
support the Communist program. The essential feature of the
Communist Program is to convince the majority of the worker,
of the truth of the ideas of Commumsm
We do not have a single point in our whole P»£ ar "
we wish to concea, from ^1^*^^
Communist program ever issued, the found* « CQm _
munlsm, Marx and Engels, long ago declared,
munists disdain to conceal their . aims Wg once
more appeal to the -worn „ workers as well.
Communists as a matter ^"^f,^ because the capitalists
, Th e Communists are today out '* class , when William
are planning to outlaw the f f;^ «d 0 Adjutant General
Z. Foster was forcibly run out of Colo ^ ^ rf the
Hamrock declared that hedid ^ f^ lted/>
State." And he added. No law
CAPITALISTS BREAK OWN LAWS
k »k their own laws whenever their mter-
The capitalists brea k t h r °, dcfeml their advance
ests demand it. I th ' *^ thcn the workers will have
guard, the persecuted Co-mum ^ dass face the same
to get ready to have * H ardings, Daughertys, and
declaration from the " a «™ ' must be crushed "for the
Pershings that ^^^^d in this instance also "no law
best interests of the i>uxe
Tn rint-t'L of the whole working class, we call upon the
AB> t ea ToTu! t W through^ the country a United Front against
a " T ^derestricted right to organize, strike, and
Pickt ; t - Democracy in fact for all the workers as it is now given
to the capitalist—the unrestricted right to freedom of press,
assembly and speech.
4 Van must wage your struggles more effectively, De-
mand'the amalgamation of your craft unions.
5 You must have a political party of the workers entirely .'■
independent of the capitalist parties,
6. Organize a country-wide protest against the slanderous
capitalist campaign against your foreign-bom brother workers.
7. For the realization of these demands, organize every-
where open protest meetings and demonstrations. Pass resolu-
tions on a national scale. Every union, every labor organization
should pass such resolutions of protest.
8. Raise money everywhere to aid the victims of capitalist
For the united struggle against our common enemy, we are,
The Communist Party of America.
Section of the Communist International,
.Labor Day, 1922.